PM Theory



Fluid Lever

Curving Rail

Motive Mass

Repeat Lever

Tilt Motor



Bezel Weight


Conv Wheels


Escher Mach

Spin Top

Apollo Device

Early Failures


PM Types
Questions, comments, or other
inquiries may be directed to:
NATHAN COPPEDGE--Perpetual Motion Concepts
white elephant



Traditionally attempts at perpetual motion are categorized into two types:
those that could not function without breaking the first law of
thermodynamics and those that could not function without breaking the
second law. However I hope that soon the distinction between working and
dysfunctional machines will become more blurry, as we reach greater
proximity to actual and effective over-unity.

If there is such a thing as a working perpetual motion machine, it is more
useful to divide the machines into a hierarchy, depending on the level of
functionality. Whether or not there is a working perpetual motion machine
design, some designs are better than others. Thus the hierarchy, as I
conceive it:

Level 1: Generates energy and is over-unity
i.e. "A piece of God or the work of the devil"

Reidar Finsrud evidently has a working machine, but says that not much
energy is extracted in an instant, although it adds up significantly over time.
A gentleman on Youtube mentions an
electrostatic PMM HERE. Supposedly
there is at least one example of a working
Magnet Machine. And see an
article on
Tesla's version. My experiments (for example, Evidence Against
the Classical Model and The Escher Machine) seem to confirm that
over-unity is possible, although I have not built a fully working machine.
Australian inventor claiming 440% over-unity was apparently debunked.
In a diagram,
I show how the fabled Bessler Wheel might work.
One hobbyist shows a
possible use of leverage in magnets, possibly inspired
by my own designs.

Level 2: Moves for a long time with minimal expenditure of energy, but it is
impossible to derive useful energy and/ or achieve over-unity.
i.e. "An
extremely clever engineer was here".

The so called "drinking bird". And Drebbel's Clock and the Lamp Spinner
The swinging metal balls office toy known as "Newton's Cradle".
There is also the
"Pyramid Energy" device that runs by Earth's motion.
The recent
"John Device" apparently runs on small batteries.
Certain magnet toys, specifically the "
SMOT" have been claimed to have a
similar capacity in series.
One inventor provides evidence that Bedini (electric magnet) motors are not

Level 2.5: Low-Friction Devices
The most honest example I have found is shown at
Square Magnets Perpetual Motion Machine Idea.
Another example is the
2-Stage Oscillator.
These fail when energy is extracted in any way.

Level 3: Would move if it weren't for friction or the concept is an
inappropriate choice for perpetual motion due to natural law, or the concept
might work if it were developed further.

I.e. mixed bag. Everyone thinking of these as perpetual motion are confused
or doing some fast thinking.

Motive mass without a difference weight. See my experiments. Most
waterwheels, at least insofar as they are related to grav-buoy2 Anything with
depletable or external energy (wave motion, solar power, fusion power).

Level 4: Non-functional in principle after reflection i.e. "Victims of Reason"

Rolling ball wheel (without ramps or levers) and most other perpetual motion
wheels, constant or gradual radius leverage wheel, Archimedian screw.

Level 5: Absurd even to most enthusiasts; a careless or incomplete
i.e. "Objectively Dubious"

My Early Failures, Electric energy re-feeding machines (in their purest form)
Machines that act solely by means of springs (a form of stored and
depletable energy).



The problem with common electric "feedback devices"

Common YouTube Magnet Design Debunked

Mechanical Appliances and Novelties of Construction

The "Museum of Unworkable Devices"

Ideomotor Effect disproves some magnet concepts [noted by Donald
Simanek. I agree with him. Original Simanek link

"Coal Car" Toy uses a ramp with 45 degree tilt similar to Motive Mass.

Cogwheel Concept on YouTube


Delk's magnet machine DISPROVEN
showing I'm right to hate magnets

Successful magnet design 2 - owner declares it's a fake

Successful? magnet design

Finsrud PMM

Some mathematicians (at least formerly) disagreed about it

Superfluid Tested in Laboratory


Simon's Wheel

Back to Perpetual Motion Theory    Back to Perpetual Motion Concepts

Information About Simple Machines Conventionally Understood

If you're interested in a theory distinguishing the types, you might be
interested in my
Volitional Mathematics concept at the Impossible

See also other websites, including my blog:

Perpetual Motion Science Experiments
How to Build an Over-Unity Device
Critique of Newton's Laws of Motion
Quora Critique of Conservation of Momentum
Causal Equilibria
Vector Toggling
A Variative List

Adapted to modern physics
would go as thus:

1. A Theory Which Extends the Context
for Physical Law [Tilt Motor,
Eff = 5,
although recently I found promise for a
Bessler-type design that may be rated up
Eff = 6, depending on the math]

2. A Theory Which Diverts Physical
Laws in a Balance of Strategy [Repeat
Lever Type 2,
Eff = 2]

3. A Theory Which Works With a High
Level of Super-Fluity [Perhaps
Curvilinear Weight Machine,
Eff. = 0.12]
believes in God,
the devil, or a

"My experiments
are honest, but
A Variative List
Adapted to Volitional Mechanics

Might go thus:

1. Perpetual Motion [?]

2. Over-Unity [Trough-Leverage]

3. Principles, such as Rotation,  
Chain-Reaction, and Leverage.