FORMAL / LOGICAL SYSTEMS
Also known as logical syllogisms, these are a form of deduction
originally arranged by Aristotle. They come in a wide variety of
forms, but only a small number are logically valid.
The two most common are Modus Ponens and Hypothetical
Modus Ponens: Hypothetical Inference:
All systems are logical. If I drink will become drunk.
A is a system I am drunk.
A must be logical. Therefore, I took a drink.
In both forms, the soundness of the conclusion (s) depends on the
soundness of all of the premises related with the conclusion.
Syllogisms may be called causal forms of inference, because the
conclusions usually depend on more than one premise, and there
is no rule which says that conclusions cannot contradict one
Since the system cannot be proven coherent, it must be assumed
that the conclusions are derived from the nature of the premises
exclusively, as numerous philosophers have emphasized in the
last 100 years.
For an example of coherent deduction, see Categorical Deduction.
The difference may be criticized as a distinction between
empirical premises and systematic ones, and depending on the
types of logical biases, one or another may be deemed more or
less trivial than the other.
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